References Include

School Psychology Forum: Nonsuicidal Self-Injury
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Alexander, N., & Clare, L. (2004). You Still Feel Different: The Experience and Meaning of Women’s Self-Injury in the Context of a Lesbian or Bisexual Identity. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14(2), 70-84.

American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.) Washington DC: Author.

Andover, M. S., Pepper, C. M., Ryabchenk, K. A., Orrico, E. G., & Gibb, B. E. (2005). Self-mutilation and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and borderline personality disorder. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(5), 581-591.

Austin, L., & Kortum, J. (2004). Self-Injury: The Secret Language of Pain for Teenagers. Education, 124(3), 517-527.

Beck, A. (1975). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. Madison, CT: International Universities Press Inc.

Bell, A., & Weinberg, M. (1978). Homosexualities: A study of diversity among men and women. London: Mitchell Beazley.

Best, R. (2005). An Educational response to deliberate self-harm: training, support and school-agency links. Journal of Social Work Practice, 19(3), 275-287.

Bloom, A. (2009). Better training needed to spot self-harmers. The Times Educational Supplement, 22.

Booth, S. (2004, February). Cutting Clubs: What’s the latest and most shocking new “friendship” ritual? Teen People looks at how a growing number of kids are bonding with their peers by slicing themselves with razor blades. Teen People, 7, 98.

Brain-based Classification of Negative Social Bias in Adolescents With Nonsuicidal Selfinjury: Findings From Simulated Online Social Interaction Irene Perini a, ⁎, Per A. Gustafsson a,b , J. Paul Hamilton a , R. Kämpe a , Leah M. Mayo a , Markus Heilig a,c,1 , Maria Zetterqvist a,b,1

Briere, J., Gil, E. (1998). Self-mutilation in clinical and general population samples: Prevalence, correlates, and functions. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 609-620.

The development of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) during adolescence: A systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis. Lisa De Luca, Massimiliano Pastore, Benedetta Emanuela Palladino,, Birgit Reime, Patrick Warth, Ersilia Menesini  

Dulit, R., Fryer, M., Leon, A., Brodsky, B., & Frances, A. (1994) Clinical correlates of self-mutilation in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(9), 1305-1311.

Duperouzel, H., & Fish, R. (2007). Why couldn’t I stop her? Self injury: the views of staff and clients in a medium secure unit. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 59-65.

Ellis, A. (1975). A new guide to rational living. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Evans, K., Tyrer, P., Catalan, J., Schmidt, U., Davidson, K., Dent, J., Tata, P., Thornton, S., Barber, J., & Thompson, S. (1999). Manual-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (MACT): a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention with bibiliotherapy in the treatment of recurrent deliberate self-harm. Psychological Medicine, 29(1), 19-25.

Gardner, A.R., & Gardner, A.J. (1975). Self-mutilation, obsessionality and narcissism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 127-132.

Giebenhain, J., Anderson, J., & Keller, A. (2006). Cut and The Burn Journals: Self-Injury in Teen Literature. American Psychological Association 2006 Convention Presentation.

Gratz, K., & Roemer, L. (2008). The Relationship Between Emotion Dysregulation and Deliberate Self-Harm Among Female Undergraduate Students at an Urban Commuter University. Cognitive Bheaviour Therapy, 37(1), 14-25.

Gyori D and Balazs J (2021) Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Perfectionism: A Systematic Review. Front. Psychiatry 12:691147. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.691147

Favazza, A. (1989). The Coming of Age of Self-Mutilation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186(5) 259-268.

Favazza, A., & Conterio, K. (1989). Female habitual self-mutilators. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79(3), 283-289.

The Four-Function Model of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Key Directions for Future Research Kate H. Bentley1 , Matthew K. Nock2 , and David H. Barlow1

Hawton, K., Bergen, H., Casey, D., Simkin, S., Palmer, B., Cooper, J., Kapur, N., Horrocks, J., House, A., Lilley, R., Noble, R., & Owens, D. (2007). Self-Harm in England: a tale of three cities. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(7), 513-521.

Heath, N., Toste, J., & Beettam, E. (2006). “I Am Not Well-Equipped”: High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Self-Injury. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 21(1/2), 73-92.

Hetrick SE, Subasinghe A, Anglin K, Hart L, Morgan A and Robinson J (2020) Understanding the Needs of Young People Who Engage in Self-Harm: A Qualitative Investigation

Hodgson, S. (2004). Cutting through the Silence: A Sociological Construction of Self-Injury. Sociological Inquiry, 74(2), 162-179.

Jeppson, J. E., Richards, P. S., Hardman, R. K., & Granley, H. M. (2003). Binge and purge processes in bulimia nervosa: A qualitative investigation. Eating Disorders, 11 (2), 115-128.

Jiao T, Guo S, Zhang Y, Li Y, Xie X, Ma Y, Chen R, Yu Y and Tang J (2022) Associations of depressive and anxiety symptoms with non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal attempt among Chinese adolescents: The mediation role of sleep quality. Front. Psychiatry 13:1018525. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1018525

Joiner, T. E. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Josephine. (2008). Machination, Medication, and Mutilation. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(1), 45-50.

Katz, L. Y., Cox, B. J., Gunasekara, S., & Miller, A. L. (2004). Feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescent inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(3), 276-282.

Kibler, J. (2009). Self-Injury in the Schools: An Exploratory Analysis of Midwest School Counselors’ Knowledge and Experience. North American Journal of Psychology, 11(2), 309-322.

Klonsky, E. D., & Moyer, A. (2008). Childhood sexual abuse and non-suicidal self-injury: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192(3), 166-170.

Klonsky, E. D., & Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2007). Self-Injury: A Research Review for the Practitioner. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 63(11), 1045-1056.

Klonsky, E. D., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2003). Deliberate self-harm in a nonclinical population: Prevalence and psychological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry. 160(8), 1501-1508.

Kumar, G., Pepe, D., & Steer, R. A. (2004). Adolescent psychiatric inpatients’ self-reported reasons for cutting themselves. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(12), 830-836.

Lader, W., & Contrerio, K. (1998). Bodily harm: The breakthrough healing program for self-injurers. New York: Hyperion.

Langbehn, D. R., & Pfohl, B. (1993). Clinical correlates of self-mutilation among psychiatric inpatients. Annals of Psychiatry, 5(1), 45-51.

Laye-Gindhu, A., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2005). Nonsuicidal self-harm among community adolescents: Understanding the ‘whats’ and ‘whys’ of self-harm. Journal of Youth and adolesence. 34(5), 447-457.

Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive behavioural treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.

Linehan, M. M., Armstrong, H.E., Suarez, A., Allmon, D., Heard, H.L. (1991). Cognitive behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48(12), 1060-1064.

Linehan, M. M., Comtois, K., & Murray, A. (2006). Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs. therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(7), 757-766.

Lieberman, R. (2004). Understanding and responding to students who self-mutilate. Principal Leadership Magazine, 4(7), 10-13.

Lundh, L.-G., Karim, J., & Quilisch, E. (2007). Deliberate self-harm in 15-year old adolescents: A pilot study with a modified version of the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48(1), 33-41.

Malikow, M. (2006). When Students Cut Themselves. The Education Digest, 71(8), 45-50.

Matas, K. (2006). Stressed teens self-mutilate: Two psychologists to discuss depressive behaviors tonight at Old Vail Middle School. Arizona Daily Star, 9/21/2006.

Matsumoto, T. & Imamura, F. (2008). Self-injury in Japanese junior and senior high-school students: Prevalence and association with substance use. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(1), 123-125.

McAllister, M., Creedy, D., Moyle, W., & Farrugia, C. (2002). Nurses’ attitudes towards clients who self-harm. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(5), 578-586.

Mental Health, Suicidality, and Connectedness Among High School Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic — Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, United States, January–June 2021 Sherry Everett Jones, PhD1; Kathleen A. Ethier, PhD1; Marci Hertz, MS1; Sarah DeGue, PhD2; Vi Donna Le, PhD2; Jemekia Thornton, MPA1; Connie Lim, MPA1; Patricia J Dittus, PhD1; Sindhura Geda, MS3

Mizes, J. S., & Arbitell, M. R. (1991). Bulimics’ perceptions of emotional responding during binge-purge episodes. Psychological Reports, 69(2), 527-532.

Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2006). Empirically supported treatments and general therapy guidelines for non-suicidal self-injury. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 28(2), 166-185.

Muehlenkamp, J. J., & Gutierrez, P.M. (2004). An investigation of the differences between self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts in a sample of adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 34(1), 12-23.

Muehlenkamp, J. J., & Gutierrez, P.M. (2007). Risk for suicide attempts among adolescents who engage in non-suicidal self-injury. Archives of Suicide Research, 11(1), 69-82.

Nielsen E, Sayal K, Townsend E (2016) Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Coping Functions and the Recency and Frequency of Self-Harm. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159854. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159854

Nock, M. K., Joiner, T. E., Gordon, K. H., Lloyd-Richardson, E., & Prinstein, M J. (2006). Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Research, 144(1), 65-72.

Nock, M. K., Teper, R., & Hollander, M. (2007). Psychological Treatment of Self-Injury Among Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 63(11), 1081-1089.

Nock, M. K., & Prinstein, M.J., (2005). Contextual features and behavioral functions of self-mutilation among adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 140-146.

Plante, L., & Hayward, C. (2007). Bleeding to Ease the Pain. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Practitioner Review: Common elements in treatments for youth suicide attempts and self-harm – a practitioner review based on review of treatment elements associated with intervention benefits Jocelyn I. Meza,1,2 Lucas Zullo,1 Sylvanna M. Vargas,1,2 Dennis Ougrin,3 and Joan R. Asarnow1

Rathus, J. H., & Miller, A. L. (2002). Dialectical behavior therapy adapted for suicidal adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32(2), 146-157.

Risk factors of suicidal spectrum behaviors in adults and adolescents with attention-defcit / hyperactivity disorder – a systematic review. Amalie Austgulen1†, Nanna Karen Gilberg Skram2†, Jan Haavik1,3 and Astri J. Lundervold2*

Roberts-Dobie, S., & Donatelle, R. (2007). School Counselors and Self-Injury. Journal of School Health, 77(5), 257-264.

Rosen, P.M., & Walsh, B.W. (1989). Patterns of contagion in self-mutilation epidemics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(5), 656-658.

Ross, S., & Heath, N. (2002). A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community of Adolescents. The Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(1), 67-77.

Ross, S., Heath, N., & Toste (2009). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Eating Pathology in High School Students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(1), 83-92.

Roy, A. (1978). Self-mutilation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 51(2), 201-203.

Rosenthal, R., Rinzler, C., Walsh, R., & Klausner, E., (1972). Wrist-cutting syndrome: the meaning of a gesture. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128(11), 1363-1368.

Saxe, G., Chawla, N., & van Der Kolk, B. (2002). Self-destructive behavior in patients with dissociative disorders. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32(3), 313-320.

Stanley, B., Gameroff, M., Michalsen, V., & Mann, J., (2001). Are Suicide Attempters Who Self-Mutilate a Unique Population? American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 427-432.

Stanley, B., Winchel, R., Mocho, A., Simeon, D., & Stanley, M. (1992). Suicide and the self-harm continuum: phenomenological and biochemical evidence. International Review of Psychiatry, 4(2), 149-155.

Strong, M. (1998). A Bright Red Scream. Self-mutilation and the Language of Pain. New York: Viking.

Tillotson, K. (2008). Is cognitive behaviour therapy useful for people who self-harm? Mental Health Practice, 11(5), 28-31.

Tonta, K. E., Boyes, M., Howell, J., McEvoy, P., Johnson, A., & Hasking, P. (2022). Modeling pathways to non‐suicidal self‐injury: The roles of perfectionism, negative affect, rumination, and attention control. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 78, 1463–1477. 

Toste, J. R., Wagner, C., Heath, N., & Schaub. (2006). Intervention in the Schools: Teacher Perceptions of Adolescent Self-Injury.  American Psychological Association 2006 Convention Presentation.

Tyrer, P., Tom, B., Byford, S., Schmidy, U., Jones, V., Davidson, K., Knapp, M., MacLeod, A., & Catalan, J. (2004). Differential effects of manual assisted cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of recurrent deliberate self-harm and personality disturbance: the POPMACT study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(1), 102-116.

Understanding Nonsuicidal Self Injury in Youth. Whitlock and Rodham (School Psychology Forum: Research in Practice Volume 7 Issue 4 Winter 2013)

Wagner, J., & Rehfuss, M. (2008). Self-injury, Sexual Self-concept, and a Conservative Christian Upbringing: An Exploratory Study of Three Young Women’s Perspecitives. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30(2), 173-188.

Walsh, B.W. (2006). Treating self-injury: A practical guide. New York: Guilford Press.

Walsh, B.W., & Rosen, P. (1988). Self-mutilation. Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.

Wester, K., & Trepal, H. (2005). Working With Clients Who Self-Injure: Providing Alternatives. Journal of College Counseling, 8(2), 180-189.

White, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. New York: W.W. Norton.

Whitlock, J.L., Powers, J.L., & Eckenrode, J. (2006). The virtual cutting edge: The Internet and adolescent self-injury. Developmental Psychology, 42(3), 407-417.

Woldorf, M. (2005). Clinical Implications of the Paradox of Deliberate Self-Injury. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 10(4), 196-200.

Yates, T., Tracy, A., & Luthar, S. (2008). Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among “Privileged” Youths: Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Approaches to Developmental Process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 52-62